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Table 1 Summary statistics: mean and standard deviations (N = 1,448)

From: What determines adult cognitive skills? Influences of pre-school, school, and post-school experiences in Guatemala

  All Women Men
K 3 : Cognitive skills
 Reading comprehension score (RCS) or verbal skills 36.05 (22.3) 34.41 (21.9) 37.95* (22.7)
 RCS + pre-literacy test scores (RCS + prelit) 66.93 (29.7) 64.74 (29.9) 69.45* (29.2)
  Raven score or nonverbal skills 17.70 (6.1) 16.26 (5.4) 19.36* (6.5)
E: Life-cycle stage experiences
 E1: HAZ at age six (1,268 non-missing cases) −2.22 (0.96) −2.20 (0.95) −2.30 (0.97)
 E 2 : School attainment (grades) 4.69 (3.5) 4.29 (3.3) 5.15* (3.6)
 E 3 : Skilled job tenure (years) 2.85 (4.8) 1.27 (3.4) 4.67* (5.5)
  Migrant to Guatemala City in 2002–2004 (=1) 0.17 0.18 0.15
I 0 : Individual characteristics
 Age at interview in 2002–2004 (years) 32.33 (4.2) 32.42 (4.3) 32.23 (4.2)
  Age at interview in 2002–2004 squared (years2) 1,063.2 (277.8) 1,069.5 (281.6) 1,056.0 (273.4)
Instruments
 E 0 : Genetic endowment
  Male (=1) 0.46 0.00 1.00
  Twin (=1) 0.02 0.02 0.01
 F 0 : Household and parental characteristics
  Household wealth index z score [1,330 non-missing cases] −3.10 (0.92) −3.10 (0.91) −3.09 (0.93)
  Mother’s school attainment (grades) [1,427 non-missing cases] 1.36 (1.7) 1.25 (1.6) 1.48* (1.8)
  Father’s school attainment (grades) [1,344 non-missing cases] 1.71 (2.1) 1.69 (2.0) 1.77 (2.3)
 ΔC: Natural, market or policy shocks
  Mother or father had died before child age 18 (= 1) 0.08 0.08 0.09
  Student–teacher ratio at child age 7 39.93 (9.0) 40.26 (9.4) 39.55 (8.5)
  Lower secondary school available at child age 7 (= 1) 0.21 0.21 0.21
  Child born during the two years prior to 1976 earthquake (=1) 0.14 0.15 0.13
  Ln salary in manufacturing industry at child age 18 1.60 (0.5) 1.58 (0.5) 1.61 (0.5)
 Intent-to-treat nutritional intervention dummies
  Exposure 00–36 months (= 1) 0.39 0.37 0.42
  Exposure 00–36 months × atole (= 1) 0.21 0.21 0.22
Observations 1,448 775 673
  1. Standard deviations are shown in parentheses
  2. * Difference between women and men based on two-sided t test with unequal variances is significant at a 5 % or lower