Skip to main content

Advertisement

Table 2 First-stage estimates of life-cycle stage experiences (N = 1,448)

From: What determines adult cognitive skills? Influences of pre-school, school, and post-school experiences in Guatemala

  E1 E2 E3a E3b
HAZ at age 6 Grades of schooling Skilled job tenure (years) Migrant to Guatemala City
I 0 : Individual characteristics
 Age at interview in 2002–2004 −0.098 (0.173) 1.284 (0.835) 0.203 (0.676) 0.478 (0.092)
 Age at interview in 2002–2004 squared 0.002 (0.002) −0.015 (0.011) −0.007 (0.009) −0.005 (0.001)
E 0 : Genetic endowment
 Male −0.091 (0.049) 0.802 (0.183) 3.419 (0.250) −0.040 (0.018)
 Twin −1.171 (0.273) −0.311 (0.716) −0.645 (0.666) −0.041 (0.087)
ΔC: Natural, market or policy shocks
Mother or father had died before child age 18 0.048 (0.083) −0.941 (0.263) −0.400 (0.532) −0.020 (0.034)
 Student–teacher ratio at age 7 0.003 (0.002) −.034 (0.014) −0.007 (0.013) −0.001 (0.002)
 Lower secondary school available at age 7 −0.038 (0.054) 1.527 (0.251) −0.599 (0.290) 0.102 (0.027)
 Born in the two years prior to 1976 earthquake −0.221 (0.087) −0.403 (0.418) −0.251 (0.279) 0.012 (0.042)
 Ln salary in manufacturing industry at child age 18 0.640 (0.332) 3.132 (1.442) −3.503 (1.276) 1.174 (0.176)
Intent-to-treat nutritional intervention
 Exposure 00–36 months −0.268 (0.068) 0.232 (0.391) 0.053 (0.387) 0.060 (0.045)
 Exposure 00–36 months × Atole 0.271 (0.075) −0.348 (0.308) −0.767 (0.368) 0.017 (0.040)
 Constant −2.225 (3.804) −24.698 (17.535) 8.694 (14.370) −11.742 (2.000)
F statistic on instruments excluded in second stage 7.3 15.4 26.3 7.8
[p value] [<0.01] [<0.01] [<0.01] [<0.01]
F statistic overall regression 15.6 17.6 24.8 7.2
[p value] [<0.01] [<0.01] [<0.01] [<0.01]
  1. OLS regressions. Standard errors calculated allowing for clustering at the birth-year-community level (64 clusters) are shown in parentheses below coefficient estimates, which are in bold if significant at 5 % or lower