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Table 3 Estimated impacts of pre-school, school, and post-school experiences on cognitive skills (N = 1,448)

From: What determines adult cognitive skills? Influences of pre-school, school, and post-school experiences in Guatemala

Life-cycle stage Representation Set 1A Set 1B Set 2 Set 3
OLS IV-GMM OLS IV-GMM OLS IV-GMM OLS IV-GMM LIML
  Panel A: Verbal Z scores
E1 HAZ score at age 6 0.202 (0.028) −0.071 (0.146)    0.073 (0.021) 0.107 (0.103) 0.073 (0.021) 0.184 (0.116) 0.089 (0.181)
E2 School attainment    0.221 (0.006) 0.101 (0.018) 0.218 (0.006) 0.105 (0.018) 0.218 (0.006) 0.087 (0.020) 0.070 (0.028)
E3 Skilled job tenure        −0.001 (0.004) 0.028 (0.014) 0.029 (0.017)
Age at interview in 2002–2004 0.220 (0.094) 0.058 (0.119) 0.076 (0.075) 0.097 (0.054) 0.111 (0.074) 0.173 (0.087) 0.111 (0.074) 0.201 (0.095) 0.109 (0.126)
Age at interview squared × 10 −0.037 (0.014) −0.014 (0.018) −0.012 (0.012) −0.018 (0.009) −0.018 (0.011) −0.029 (0.013) −0.018 (0.011) −0.034 (0.014) −0.020 (0.019)
Constant −2.690 (1.501) −0.520 (1.710) −2.164 (1.201) −1.709 (0.836) −2.574 (1.17) −2.781 (1.267) −2.585 (1.177) −2.993 (1.372) −1.582 (1.803)
Test diagnostics
F Statistic 26.5 17.4 472.2 32.3 401.7 23.9 335.6 18.9 9.6
[p value] [< 0.01] [< 0.01] [< 0.01] [< 0.01] [< 0.01] [< 0.01] [< 0.01] [< 0.01] [< 0.01]
Hansen J test [p value]   [0.03]   [0.17]   [0.12]   [0.16] [0.19]
Hausman test [p value]   [0.32]   [< 0.01]   [< 0.01]   [< 0.01]  
  Panel B: Nonverbal Z scores
E1 HAZ score at age 6 0.192 (0.034) 0.101 (0.128)    0.108 (0.033) 0.035 (0.104) 0.105 (0.034) 0.329 (0.128) 0.333 (0.193)
E2 School attainment    0.145 (0.007) 0.125 (0.025) 0.141 (0.007) 0.127 (0.026) 0.137 (0.007) 0.038 (0.036) 0.008 (0.048)
E3 Skilled job tenure        0.018 (0.006) 0.138 (0.018) 0.149 (0.023)
Age at interview in 2002–2004 0.243 (0.090) 0.089 (0.104) 0.121 (0.102) 0.122 (0.085) 0.173 (0.097) 0.145 (0.086) 0.146 (0.097) 0.054 (0.099) 0.090 (0.119)
Age at interview squared × 10 −0.041 (0.013) −0.019 (0.015) −0.021 (0.015) −0.021 (0.013) −0.029 (0.015) −0.025 (0.013) −0.025 (0.015) −0.015 (0.015) −0.021 (0.017)
Constant −3.032 (1.462) −1.089 (1.597) −2.348 (1.674) −2.260 (1.419) −2.956 (1.597) −2.587 (1.397) −2.513 (1.589) −0.033 (1.590) −0.451 (1.867)
Test diagnostics
F Statistic 25.0 18.6 166.1 23.1 118.8 17.1 96.5 31.1 22.7
[p value] [<0.01] [<0.01] [<0.01] [<0.01] [<0.01] [<0.01] [<0.01] [<0.01] [<0.01]
Hansen J test [p value]   [<0.01]   [<0.01]   [<0.01]   [0.12] [0.12]
Hausman test [p value]   [0.10]   [0.87]   [0.98]   [<0.01]  
  Panel C: First-stage diagnostics
Kleibergen–Paap Wald F statistic   7.28   15.41   6.35   6.31  
[p value]   [<0.05]   [<0.05]   [<0.05]   [<0.05]  
  1. OLS, two-step instrumental variables GMM (IV-GMM), and limited information maximum likelihood (LIML) estimation using instruments in Table 2. Standard errors calculated allowing for clustering at the birth-year-community cohort level (64 clusters) are shown in parentheses below coefficient estimates, which are in bold if significant at 5 % or lower; p values are in brackets