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Table 5 Estimated impacts of pre-school, school, and post-school experiences on cognitive skills: weighting for attrition (N = 1,448)

From: What determines adult cognitive skills? Influences of pre-school, school, and post-school experiences in Guatemala

Panel A Representation Verbal skills Nonverbal skills
Life-cycle stage IV-GMM IV-GMM
E1 HAZ score at age 6 0.174 (0.122) 0.296 (0.145)
E2 School attainment 0.084 (0.023) 0.020 (0.041)
E3 Skilled job tenure 0.037 (0.015) 0.150 (0.021)
Age at interview in 2002–2004 0.149 (0.098) −0.016 (0.105)
Age at interview squared ×10 −0.025 (0.015) −0.004 (0.015)
Constant −2.208 (1.415) 1.132 (1.702)
Test diagnostics
 F statistic 16.1 27.8
 [p value] [<0.01] [<0.01]
 Hansen J test [p value] [0.16] [0.13]
  1. Instrumental variables (GMM) estimation, using all instruments identified in Table 2, and weighted as described in Sect. 4.2.4. Standard errors calculated allowing for clustering at the birth-year-community level are shown in parentheses below coefficient estimates, which are in bold if significant at 5 % or lower; p values are in brackets
Panel B First-stage diagnostics
  Endogenous variable F statistic on instruments excluded in second stage [p value]
E1 HAZ score at age 6 7.8 [<0.01]
E2 School attainment 12.9 [<0.01]
E3 Skilled job tenure 24.6 [<0.01]
  Kleibergen–Paap Wald F statistic 6.9 [<0.05]
  1. Instrumental variables (GMM) estimation, using all instruments identified in Table 2, and weighted as described in Sect. 4.2.4. Standard errors calculated allowing for clustering at the birth-year-community level are shown in parentheses below coefficient estimates, which are in bold if significant at 5 % or lower; p values are in brackets