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Table 3 Results of gravity equation for international trade in agri-food products disaggregated by country trade flows (based on their income level)

From: New directions of trade for the agri-food industry: a disaggregated approach for different income countries, 1963–2000

lnX ijt Agri-food trade PCSE estimation
S–S S–N N–N N–S
lnY it −2.186*** −1.175*** −1.860** 0.368
lnY jt 2.341*** 2.987*** 1.521*** 0.842***
lnYpcp it 3.847*** 2.033*** 2.385** −0.442
lnYpcp jt −1.278** −2.077** −0.277 −0.667***
lnDist ij
lnExcvol ijt 0.002 0.002 −0.010* −0.001
Border ij     
Language ij     
Both_in_MERCOSUR ijt 0.157    
Both_in_ANDEAN ijt 0.104    
Both_in_ASEAN ijt −0.074    
Both_in_GSTP ijt 0.094 0.154   
Both_in_APEC ijt 0.538** 0.261 0.184 −0.192
Both_in_NAFTA ijt   0.189 0.146 0.760***
One_in_ NAFTA ijt 0.778*** 0.147 −0.248** 0.009
One_in_ EU ijt   0.029 0.085*  
One_in_ EFTA ijt   −0.048 0.247***  
One_in_ CER ijt   0.091 0.001  
Both_in_EU ijt    0.694***  
Both_in_EFTA ijt    0.647***  
Both_in_CER ijt    −0.035  
NRA ijt −0.005 0.028   
Gatt 63-94 −0.166* −0.145 −0.005 0.022
Gatt 94-00 0.177 0.209* 0.138 0.161
Constant drop drop drop drop
Country FE Yes Yes Yes Yes
No.observ. 10.061 10.597 14.401 15.121
R-squared. 0.512 0.630 0.835 0.567
  1. Prais-Winsten estimation with PCSE and fixed effects. N–N: North–North trade, among high-income countries; N–S: North–South trade, exports from high-income countries to low-income countries; S–N: South-North trade, exports from low-income countries to high-income countries; S–S: South–South trade, among low-income countries
  2. All variables are in logarithms, except binary variables (such as common border, language and different RTAs). ***, ** and * denote statistical significance at the 1, 5 and 10 % level respectively