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Table 4 Random Effects and Fixed Effects estimations

From: New directions of trade for the agri-food industry: a disaggregated approach for different income countries, 1963–2000

lnX ijt Agri-food exports Random Effects Agri-food exports Fixed Effects
S–S S–N N–N N–S S–S S–N N–N N–S
lnY it 0.44*** 0.47*** 0.18*** 0.95*** −2.74** −1.51*** −1.56*** 1.323***
lnY jt 0.56*** 1.34*** 1.00*** 0.90*** 2.46*** 3.15*** 1.63*** 0.409***
lnYpcp it 0.97*** 0.56*** 0.41*** −0.11 4.49** 2.73*** 2.07*** 1.323***
lnYpcp jt 0.11 −1.59*** −0.26*** −0.30*** −1.32*** −2.43*** −0.50*** 0.409***
lnDist ij −1.18*** −0.07 −0.48*** −1.11***     
lnExcvol ijt 0.03*** −0.01 −0.007** 0.01** 0.053*** 0.01 −0.01*** 0.011***
Border ij 1.01** 0.37 0.55** −0.72     
Language ij −0.56 0.99** 1.32*** 0.49**     
Both_in_MERCOSUR ijt 0.12     0.13    
Both_in_ANDEAN ijt −0.22     −0.20    
Both_in_ASEAN ijt 0.50     0.81    
Both_in_GSTP ijt −0.08*     0.20***    
Both_in_APEC ijt 0.90*** 0.51*** 0.28*** −0.02 0.69*** 0.40*** 0.35*** −0.34**
Both_in_NAFTA ijt   −0.01 0.19 1.05**   0.04 0.27 1.23**
One_in_ NAFTA ijt 0.80*** 0.15** −0.34*** 0.28*** 0.87*** 0.20** −0.30*** 0.22**
One_in_ EU ijt   −0.03 0.04* 0.50***   0.02 0.06** 0.43***
One_in_ EFTA ijt   −0.11* 0.26*** 0.64***   −0.19** 0.29*** 0.78***
One_in_ CER ijt   0.05 0.01 1.33***   0.32* 0.03 0.67***
Both_in_EU ijt    1.03***     0.99***  
Both_in_EFTA ijt    0.83***     0.93***  
Both_in_CER ijt    0.27     0.22  
NRA ijt −0.04 −0.00    0.07 −0.06*   
Gatt 63-94 −0.33*** −0.08* 0.26*** −0.01 −0.28*** −0.11** 0.24*** 0.02
Gatt 94-05 0.24*** 0.28** 0.30*** 0.07 0.26*** 0.27*** 0.29*** 0.14**
Constant −13.7*** −26.1*** −16.8*** −24.8*** −7.6*** −31.4*** −18.9*** −33.6***
Country FE      Yes Yes Yes Yes
No. observ. 10.061 10.597 14.401 15.121 10.061 10.597 14.401 15.121
R-Squared. 0.40 0.45 0.56 0.43 0.29 0.19 0.44 0.27
LM BreuchPagan         
RE > OLS 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00     
F-test FE > OLS      0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00
Hausman test FE > RE      0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00
Wald test      0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00
Woolridge      0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00
  1. Prais-Winsten estimation with PCSE and fixed effects. N–N: North–North trade, among high-income countries; N–S: North–South trade, exports from high-income countries to low-income countries; S–N: South–North trade, exports from low-income countries to high-income countries; S–S: South–South trade, among low-income countries
  2. All variables are in logarithms, except binary variables (such as common border, language and different RTAs)
  3. ***, ** and * denote statistical significance at the 1, 5 and 10 % level respectively