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Table 2 Unit root tests

From: The effect of coca and FDI on the level of corruption in Bolivia

  Lags ADF DF-GLS PP
Level First difference Level First difference Level First difference
Share of Corruption on GDP (sCor) 4 −0.7398 −13.2503** −1.4604 −12.9876** −0.5486 −16.5517**
Investment profile (InvProf) 4 −1.5965 −6.5990** −1.5803 −6.6134** −1.5829 −15.1484**
Risk for inflation (Rinf) 4 −2.8920 −6.2482** −2.6785* −6.2691** 3.6169** −17.8002**
Real GDP per capita (Ycapita) 4 1.5908 −7.1400** −1.0166 −2.7876* 1.4892 −15.8144**
Price of Coca (pCoca) 4 −1.9029 −6.8939** −2.0066 −16.5687** −2.1663 −17.5269**
Share of FDI on GDP (sFDI) 4 −2.9684 −8.6737** −1.6145 −10.3009** −0.3264 −14.4749**
Share of imports on GDP (sImports) 4 −1.8065 −10.0193** −0.6867 −9.9296** −3.8465** −24.4014**
Share of total trade on GDP (sTrade) 4 −0.3618 −8.5244** −2.1484 −11.1216** −0.9822 −21.4046**
  1. ** and * denote significance at the 5 and 10 % level, respectively