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Table 8 Efficiency drivers: second-stage estimations (pool)

From: Measuring the efficiency of public schools in Uruguay: main drivers and policy implications

Explanatory variables Conventional Tobita Truncated + bootstrapb Tobit + bootstrapa OLS + bootstrap
Coef. SE t Coef. SE z Coef. SE z Coef. SE z
Periodc 0.067 0.017 3.88*** 0.093 0.025 3.76*** 0.067 0.018 3.76*** 0.016 3.820 3.82***
PCTCORRECT −0.246 0.042 −5.91*** −0.351 0.062 −5.66*** −0.246 0.043 −5.72*** −0.216 0.037 −5.79***
TEACHVOCc 0.053 0.023 2.25** 0.080 0.034 2.37** 0.053 0.024 2.18** 0.051 0.022 2.31**
RURALc −0.031 0.028 −1.12 0.003 0.042 0.07 −0.031 0.029 −1.09 −0.028 0.022 −1.27
CITYc −0.014 0.033 −0.42 0.018 0.044 0.40 −0.014 0.034 −0.40 −0.017 0.031 −0.56
TEACH_stu −0.001 0.003 −0.29 −0.005 0.005 −1.00 −0.001 0.004 −0.25 −0.001 0.003 −0.18
Curr_authorc 0.048 0.023 2.05** 0.053 0.033 1.61 0.048 0.025 1.95* 0.035 0.020 1.73*
Disc_authorc −0.019 0.021 −0.89 0.013 0.033 0.40 −0.019 0.023 −0.84 −0.011 0.020 −0.54
Asses_authorc 0.006 0.025 0.23 −0.004 0.036 −0.10 0.006 0.027 0.21 0.000 0.023 −0.01
Budget_authorc −0.024 0.020 −1.15 −0.051 0.032 −1.62 −0.024 0.022 −1.09 −0.021 0.018 −1.13
Budget_ppalc −0.034 0.019 −1.85* −0.068 0.029 −2.34** −0.034 0.020 −1.76* −0.035 0.016 −2.17**
Constant 1.217 0.042 29.25*** 1.272 0.054 23.58*** 1.217 0.044 27.75*** 1.221 0.039 31.24***
/sigma 0.103 0.008   0.104 0.010   0.103 0.007   0.094   
  1. Source: authors’ estimations using PISA 2009 and PISA 2012 databases
  2. ‘Coef.’ is the estimated coefficient. SE is the robust standard error of the estimated coefficient. Number of schools = 169
  3. p < 0.10
  4. ** p < 0.05
  5. *** p < 0.01
  6. aCensored regression model with 16 left-censored observations at value 1
  7. bTruncated regression model with 16 left-truncated observations at value 1
  8. cDummy variables. Reference categories for school dummies are: PISA 2009 database; non-vocational technical school; school located in a town with more than 3000 and less than 100,000 inhabitants; the national authorities do not have a considerable responsibility for determining the content of the courses or establishing student disciplinary policies or distributing the school budget or establishing the students assessment policies; the school principal does not have a considerable responsibility for distributing the school budget