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Table 2 Examples of mitigation practices and policies for each sector, together with their potential for emission reductions

From: Climate change in Latin America and the Caribbean: policy options and research priorities

Sector Estimated potential (CO2 equivalent) Private mitigation practices Public policies to encourage mitigation
Energy 7.2 Gt Fuel switch and plant efficiency
Usage of cleaner power sources: nuclear, hydroelectric, wind, bio-energy, geothermal, solar
Carbon Capture and Storage (CCS)
Reduction of fossil-fuel subsidies
Stimulation of front-runners in specific technologies by encouragement of market creation
Promotion of investment of low-carbon energy technologies, improved energy conversion, transport and storage
Transport 1600–2550 Mt Increased implementation of biofuels (cars, airplanes)
Improvement of aerodynamics, weight reduction, introduction of regenerative brakes and on-board energy storage (trains)
Better integrated spatial planning
Implementation of Transportation Demand Management
Provision of better public transport systems
Establishment of fuel-economy standards and fiscal incentives
Road and parking pricing policies
Residential/commercial buildings 4 Gt Installation of space heating monitored systems
Use of efficient lights and appliances
Improved cooking stoves
Application of integrated building design
Passive solar construction
Use of high-efficiency heat pumps
Adaptive window glazing
Strengthening of building codes
Implementation of appliance standards
Use of tax-exemption policies
Demand-side management programs
Education and information programs
Industry 4 Gt Benchmarking
Implementation of energy management systems
Use of efficient motor systems
Process integration
Fuel switching from coal to oil and gas
Cogeneration
Use of biomass, biogas, wind turbines, and hydropower as energy sources
Use of recycled inputs
Implementation of carbon and sequestration processes
Design of agreements that set emission targets, with credible penalties if not achieved
Development of financial schemes to promote energy saving in industry, restricted to specific target groups or techniques
Agriculture 4360 Mt Improved agricultural management
Restoration of cultivated organic soils and degraded lands
Improved cropland and grazing land management
Rice management
Livestock management
Implementation of policies that promote sustainable use of soils, water, and other resources
Forestry 13.8 Gt Maintain or increase forest area
Maintain or increase the site and landscape-level carbon density
Increase off-site carbon stocks in wood products and enhance product and fuel substitution
Enforcement of regulations
Well-constructed carbon markets or other environmental service payment scheme
Subsidize or provide tax exemptions to encourage afforestation and reforestation
  1. Source Barker et al. (2007)
  2. Emissions reduction expected by 2030 at less than US $100 per ton of CO2 equivalent