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Table 2 Examples of mitigation practices and policies for each sector, together with their potential for emission reductions

From: Climate change in Latin America and the Caribbean: policy options and research priorities

Sector Estimated potential (CO2 equivalent) Private mitigation practices Public policies to encourage mitigation
Energy 7.2 Gt Fuel switch and plant efficiency Usage of cleaner power sources: nuclear, hydroelectric, wind, bio-energy, geothermal, solar Carbon Capture and Storage (CCS) Reduction of fossil-fuel subsidies Stimulation of front-runners in specific technologies by encouragement of market creation Promotion of investment of low-carbon energy technologies, improved energy conversion, transport and storage
Transport 1600–2550 Mt Increased implementation of biofuels (cars, airplanes) Improvement of aerodynamics, weight reduction, introduction of regenerative brakes and on-board energy storage (trains) Better integrated spatial planning Implementation of Transportation Demand Management Provision of better public transport systems Establishment of fuel-economy standards and fiscal incentives Road and parking pricing policies
Residential/commercial buildings 4 Gt Installation of space heating monitored systems Use of efficient lights and appliances Improved cooking stoves Application of integrated building design Passive solar construction Use of high-efficiency heat pumps Adaptive window glazing Strengthening of building codes Implementation of appliance standards Use of tax-exemption policies Demand-side management programs Education and information programs
Industry 4 Gt Benchmarking Implementation of energy management systems Use of efficient motor systems Process integration Fuel switching from coal to oil and gas Cogeneration Use of biomass, biogas, wind turbines, and hydropower as energy sources Use of recycled inputs Implementation of carbon and sequestration processes Design of agreements that set emission targets, with credible penalties if not achieved Development of financial schemes to promote energy saving in industry, restricted to specific target groups or techniques
Agriculture 4360 Mt Improved agricultural management Restoration of cultivated organic soils and degraded lands Improved cropland and grazing land management Rice management Livestock management Implementation of policies that promote sustainable use of soils, water, and other resources
Forestry 13.8 Gt Maintain or increase forest area Maintain or increase the site and landscape-level carbon density Increase off-site carbon stocks in wood products and enhance product and fuel substitution Enforcement of regulations Well-constructed carbon markets or other environmental service payment scheme Subsidize or provide tax exemptions to encourage afforestation and reforestation
  1. Source Barker et al. (2007)
  2. Emissions reduction expected by 2030 at less than US $100 per ton of CO2 equivalent