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Table 11 Estimates of the models of technology adoption (Wheat farmers)

From: Production risk and adoption of irrigation technology: evidence from small-scale farmers in Chile

Variables Probit Irrigation = 1 Ordered probit+ Level: 1, 2, 3 Multinomial probit Probit on selected sample Modern irrigation = 1 Probit with sample selection Modern irrigation = 1
Modern Traditional
Moments of production distribution
 Mean 0.218 (0.031)*** 0.186 (0.028)*** 0.180 (0.0791)** 0.306 (0.0452)*** 0.019 (0.077) 0.023 (0.092)
 St. Dev. 0.386 (0.228)* 0.215 (0.221) −0.579 (0.649) 0.743 (0.331)** −1.061 (0.685) −1.091 (0.692)
 Skewness 0.075 (0.088) −0.0181 (0.084) −0.199 (0.247) 0.173 (0.126) −0.294 (0.254) −0.201 (0.275)
Household characteristics
 Gender −8.83e−05 (0.0002) −6.44e−05 (0.0002) 0.0001 (0.033) −0.0001 (0.0003) 0.001 (0.037) 0.0007 (0.103)
 Age −0.017 (0.039) −0.013 (0.037) 0.037 (0.178) −0.031 (0.058) 0.111 (0.208) 0.160 (0.239)
 Education 0.048 (0.011)*** 0.040 (0.010)*** 0.073 (0.036)** 0.065 (0.015)*** 0.059 (0.037) 0.069 (0.041)*
 Reside in farm 0.248 (0.039)*** 0.233 (0.035)*** 0.615 (0.169)*** 0.328 (0.058)*** 0.217 (0.186) 0.209 (0.224)
 Dependence −0.000156 (0.000178) −0.0001 (0.0002) −0.00137 (0.0113) −0.000218 (0.000252) −0.001 (0.034) −0.0005 (0.025)
 Capital 0.258 (0.0446)*** 0.224 (0.041)*** 0.168 (0.124) 0.386 (0.066)*** −0.175 (0.146) −0.299 (0.145)**
 Land 0.0831 (0.0273)*** 0.078 (0.026)*** 0.246 (0.069)*** 0.105 (0.039)*** 0.190 (0.081)** 0.164 (0.0901)*
Institutional aspects
 Secure tenure 0.0931 (0.055)* 0.088 (0.053)* 0.113 (0.196) 0.128 (0.0824) −0.100 (0.233) −0.0824 (0.272)
 Extension 0.230 (0.056)*** 0.279 (0.059)*** 0.828 (0.153)*** 0.238 (0.0832)*** 0.542 (0.163)*** 0.504 (0.184)***
 Credit 0.0165 (0.068) 0.049 (0.068) 0.243 (0.201) −0.0189 (0.101) 0.241 (0.221) 0.374 (0.266)
 Participation 0.551 (0.046)*** 0.408 (0.039)*** 0.181 (0.186) 0.819 (0.0680)*** −0.262 (0.194) −0.251 (0.246)
 N° irrigat (T) 0.001 (3.07e−05)*** 0.0009 (2.68e−05)*** (0.195) 0.0003 0.002 (0.0776)*** −0.001 (0.0005)** −0.0009 (0.0004)**
 N° irrigat (M) −0.002 (0.0003)*** −0.002 (0.0003)*** 0.002 (0.0003)** −0.004 (4.41e−05)*** 0.004 (0.0008)*** 0.004 (0.001)***
Environmental factors
 Soil quality −0.240 (0.0967)** −0.123 (0.094) −0.198 (0.353) −0.306 (0.141)** 0.366 (0.346) 0.485 (0.377)
 Rainfall −0.453 (0.0528)*** −0.399 (0.055)*** −0.362 (0.195)* −0.651 (0.077)*** 0.094 (0.158)  
 North zone 0.363 (0.194)* 0.538 (0.211)** 1.011 (0.893) 0.433 (0.286) 0.614 (0.486) 0.295 (2.823)
 South zone −0.247 (0.170) −0.157 (0.180) −0.0101 (0.302) −0.583 (0.300)* −0.022 (0.454) −0.114 (0.515)
 Constant 1.126 (0.433)***   −1.991 (1.772) 1.628 (0.637)** −2.760 (1.646)* −3.826 (1.768)**
 Cut 1   −0.900 (0.447)**     
 Cut 2   1.245 (0.449)***     
Observations 8254 8254 8254 2035 2035
  1. Bootstrapped standard errors in parentheses, 1000 replications
  2. *** p < 0.01, ** p < 0.05, * p < 0.1