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Table 12 Estimates of the models of technology adoption (Pooling potato and wheat farmers)

From: Production risk and adoption of irrigation technology: evidence from small-scale farmers in Chile

Variables Probit Irrigation = 1 Ordered probit+ Level: 1, 2, 3 Multinomial probit Probit on selected sample Modern irrigation = 1 Probit with sample selection Modern irrigation = 1
Modern Traditional
Moments of production distribution
 Mean 0.120 (0.0181)*** 0.105 (0.0162)*** 0.141 (0.0651)** 0.168 (0.0261)*** 0.184 (0.0716)** 0.194 (0.0686)***
 St. Dev. 0.503 (0.0814)*** 0.482 (0.0693)*** 0.205 (0.234) 0.676 (0.118)*** −0.479 (0.214)** −0.420 (0.193)**
 Skewness 0.0404 (0.00940)*** 0.0405 (0.00807)*** 0.0358 (0.0251) 0.0510 (0.0137)*** −0.0138 (0.0234) −0.0180 (0.0217)
Household characteristics
 Gender −0.000226 (0.000175) −0.000188 (0.000157) −0.000884 (0.000726) −0.000271 (0.000250) −0.000668 (0.000768) −0.000702 (0.000686)
 Age −0.0891 (0.0386)** −0.0774 (0.0347)** −0.160 (0.159) −0.117 (0.0550)** −0.0394 (0.161) −0.109 (0.143)
 Education 0.0848 (0.0101)*** 0.0738 (0.00885)*** 0.141 (0.0295)*** 0.113 (0.0147)*** 0.0970 (0.0312)*** 0.105 (0.0297)***
 Reside in farm −0.0531 (0.0398) −0.0387 (0.0358) 0.165 (0.146) −0.0906 (0.0575) 0.272 (0.155)* 0.348 (0.146)**
 Dependence −0.000486 (0.000220)** −0.000467 (0.000203)** −0.00182 (0.00367) −0.000704 (0.000315)** −0.00221 (0.00550) −0.00181 (0.00713)
 Capital 0.227 (0.0464)*** 0.205 (0.0388)*** 0.365 (0.106)*** 0.292 (0.0685)*** 0.0843 (0.111) 0.0164 (0.104)
 Land 0.0157 (0.0305) 0.0315 (0.0267) 0.349 (0.0867)*** −0.00934 (0.0448) 0.300 (0.0954)*** 0.275 (0.0902)***
 Potato farmer 0.610 (0.0522)*** 0.556 (0.0470)*** 1.436 (0.206)*** 0.803 (0.0748)*** 1.017 (0.208)*** 0.797 (0.198)***
Institutional aspects
 Secure tenure 0.108 (0.0562)* 0.132 (0.0509)*** 0.508 (0.251)** 0.121 (0.0809) 0.579 (0.306)* 0.569 (0.292)*
 Extension 0.118 (0.0577)** 0.171 (0.0516)*** 0.680 (0.148)*** 0.0711 (0.0863) 0.407 (0.179)** 0.387 (0.171)**
 Credit 0.138 (0.0642)** 0.167 (0.0532)*** 0.279 (0.131)** 0.166 (0.0955)* 0.205 (0.133) 0.151 (0.125)
 Participation 0.570 (0.0443)*** 0.407 (0.0376)*** 0.412 (0.130)*** 0.854 (0.0649)*** 0.0543 (0.130) 0.0580 (0.124)
 N° irrigat (T) 0.00146 (3.18e−05)*** 0.00123 (2.65e−05)*** 0.000956 (0.000139)*** 0.00208 (4.54e−05)*** −0.000729 (0.000135)*** −0.000648 (0.000133)***
 N° irrigat (M) −0.00324 (0.000289)*** −0.00260 (0.000226)*** 0.000219 (0.000729) −0.00492 (0.000411)*** 0.00268 (0.000661)*** 0.00193 (0.000637)***
Environmental factors
 Soil quality −0.197 (0.0761)*** −0.0373 (0.0684) −0.194 (0.284) −0.288 (0.110)*** 0.550 (0.304)* 0.528 (0.285)*
 Rainfall −0.981 (0.0413)*** −0.802 (0.0363)*** −0.384 (0.152)** −1.437 (0.0592)*** 0.801 (0.143)***  
 North zone 1.052 (0.145)*** 0.660 (0.101)*** 1.649 (0.377)*** 1.440 (0.203)*** 0.551 (0.303)* −0.382 (0.230)*
 South zone −0.809 (0.0957)*** −0.705 (0.0785)*** −0.350 (0.186)* −2.121 (0.289)*** 2.251 (0.446)*** 2.449 (0.439)***
 Constant 4.441 (0.321)*** 6.688 (0.460)*** −2.762 (1.278)** 6.688 (0.460)*** −8.543 (1.278)*** −3.078 (0.688)***
 Cut1   −3.277 (0.287)***     
 Cut2   −0.605 (0.287)**     
Observations 14,086 14,086 14,086 2703 2703
  1. Bootstrapped standard errors in parentheses, 1000 replications
  2. *** p < 0.01, ** p < 0.05, * p < 0.1