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Table 7 Estimates of the models of technology adoption

From: Production risk and adoption of irrigation technology: evidence from small-scale farmers in Chile

Variables Probit Irrigation = 1 Ordered probit+ Level: 1, 2, 3 Multinomial probit Probit on selected sample Modern irrigation = 1 Probit with sample selection Modern irrigation = 1
Modern Traditional
Moments of production distribution
 Mean 0.036 (0.029) 0.018 (0.018) 0.053 (0.077) 0.050 (0.046) 0.135 (0.100) 0.1498 (0.092)
 St. Dev. 0.521 (0.143)*** 0.154 (0.125) −0.325 (0.351) 0.844 (0.195)*** −1.129 (0.292)*** −0.943 (0.271)***
 Skewness 0.039 (0.017)** 0.005 (0.016) −0.013 (0.040) 0.068 (0.024)** −0.108 (0.034)*** −0.087 (0.032)***
Household characteristics
 Gender 0.133 (0.073)* 0.129 (0.055)** 0.055 (0.192) 0.224 (0.108)** −0.261 (0.233) −0.235 (0.223)
 Age −0.164 (0.105) −0.117 (0.084) 0.209 (0.294) −0.321 (0.159)** 0.192 (0.348) 0.139 (0.324)
 Education 0.068 (0.016)*** 0.062 (0.013)*** 0.144 (0.036)*** 0.071 (0.028)** 0.131 (0.0472)*** 0.125 (0.045)***
 Reside in farm 0.123 (0.072)* 0.053 (0.0532) 0.399 (0.227)* 0.128 (0.108) 0.695 (0.241)*** 0.647 (0.239)***
 Dependence 0.017 (0.029) −0.005 (0.024) 0.017 (0.070) 0.028 (0.043) −0.016 (0.080) −0.0006 (0.0751)
 Capital 0.009 (0.004)** 0.008 (0.003)** 0.025 (0.012)* 0.009 (0.006) 0.029 (0.013)** 0.0254 (0.012)**
 Land 0.138 (0.036)*** 0.085 (0.035)** 0.366 (0.099)*** 0.121 (0.050)** 0.117 (0.089) 0.121 (0.082)
Institutional aspects
 Secure tenure 0.223 (0.095)** 0.239 (0.068)*** 0.650 (16.302) 0.261 (0.131)** 0.601 (0.470) 0.497 (7.043)
 Extension 0.235 (0.098)** 0.260 (0.088)*** 0.639 (0.184)*** 0.112 (0.158) 0.481 (0.238)** 0.434 (0.224)*
 Credit 0.161 (0.087)* 0.213 (0.071)*** 0.638 (0.181)*** 0.006 (0.136) 0.457 (0.22)** 0.475 (0.204)**
 Participation 0.205 (0.070)** 0.098 (0.054)* 0.056 (0.180) 0.355 (0.105)*** −0.213 (0.200) −0.136 (0.182)
 N° irrigat (T) 0.0019 (0.0001)*** 0.0012 (0.000)*** 0.001 (0.000)*** 0.002 (0.0002)*** −0.001 (0.0002)*** −0.0011 (0.0002)***
 N° irrigat (M) −0.0007 (0.0006) −0.001 (0.0003)*** 0.0029 (0.001)** −0.002 (0.0008)** 0.002 (0.0009)*** 0.002 (0.0009)**
Environmental factors
 Soil quality −0.652 (0.154)*** −0.138 (0.117) −0.813 (0.457)* −0.924 (0.226)*** 0.661 (0.454) 0.586 (0.480)
 Rainfall −1.191 (0.067)*** −0.885 (0.052)*** −0.383 (0.237) −1.791 (0.094)***   
 North zone 1.151 (0.300)*** 0.375 (0.098) 2.249 (5.865) 1.599 (5.867) −0.524 (0.310)* −0.404 (0.295)
 South zone −0.530 (0.131)*** −0.859 (0.131) −0.794 (0.250)*** −28.95 (3.388)***   
 Constant 6.435 (0.693)***   −2.555 (16.397) 10.117 (1.027)*** −2.873 (1.430)** −2.823 (7.087)
 Cut1   −4.636 (0.530)***     
 Cut2   −2.246 (0.495)     
 Observations 7274 7274 7274 1223 1223
  1. Bootstrapped standard errors in parentheses, 1000 replications
  2. *** p < 0.01, ** p < 0.05, * p < 0.1