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Table 9 Estimates of the models of adoption in selected regions

From: Production risk and adoption of irrigation technology: evidence from small-scale farmers in Chile

Variables Probit Irrigation = 1 Ordered probit+ Level: 1, 2, 3 Multinomial probit Probit on selected sample Modern irrigation = 1 Probit with sample selection Modern irrigation = 1
Modern Traditional
Moments of production distribution
 Mean 0.078 (0.042)* 0.058 (0.027)** 0.231 (0.118)** 0.083 (0.062) 0.190 (0.121) 0.197 (0.105)*
 St. Dev. 0.903 (0.183)*** 0.257 (0.142)* 0.367 (0.505) 1.410 (0.274)*** −0.471 (0.417) −0.856 (0.358)**
 Skewness 0.104 (0.024)*** 0.033 (0.019)* 0.079 (0.071) 0.158 (0.037)*** −0.027 (0.056) −0.086 (0.048)*
Household head characteristics
 Gender 0.082 (1.43) 0.106 (0.065) −0.145 (0.221) 0.214 (0.120)* −0.345 (0.276) −0.285 (0.244)
 Age −0.135 (0.113) −0.088 (0.091) 0.185 (0.329) −0.257 (0.165) 0.364 (0.367) 0.185 (0.367)
 Education 0.059 (0.020)*** 0.057 (0.016)*** 0.173 (0.045)*** 0.052 (0.031)* 0.142 (0.049)*** 0.139 (0.048)***
 Reside in plot 0.098 (0.075) 0.068 (0.057) 0.681 (0.242)** 0.064 (0.109) 0.603 (0.271)** 0.742 (0.248)***
 Dependence −0.009 (0.030) −.0017 (0.025) −0.018 (0.082) −0.0091 (0.043) 0.040 (0.085) 0.028 (0.079)
 Capital 0.0128 (0.004)*** 0.0100 (0.003)*** 0.041 (0.014)** 0.012 (0.006)** 0.0292 (0.014)** 0.023 (0.013)*
 Land 0.164 (0.038)*** 0.103 (0.032)*** 0.407 (0.096)*** 0.154 (0.052)** 0.222 (0.103)** 0.148 (0.087)*
Institutional aspects
 Secure tenure 0.283 (0.098)*** 0.277 (0.073)*** 0.776 (32.17) 0.344 (0.144)** 0.535 (0.486) 0.028 (0.079)
 Extension 0.181 (0.103)* 0.229 (0.102)** 0.586 (0.232)** 0.128 (0.159) 0.429 (0.255)* 0.388 (0.227)*
 Credit 0.119 (0.098) 0.201 (0.083)** 0.567 (0.217)** 0.006 (0.142) 0.480 (0.230)** 0.502 (0.229)**
 Participation 0.183 (0.081)** 0.091 (0.060) 0.200 (0.218) 0.270 (0.112)** −0.003 (0.218) −0.079 (0.193)
 N° irrigat (T) 0.001 (0.0001)*** 0.001 (0.00006)*** 0.0013 (0.0002)*** 0.002 (0.0002)*** −0.0012(0.0002)*** −0.001 (0.0002)***
 N° irrigat (M) −0.001 (0.0006)* −0.0014(0.0003)*** 0.002 (0.001)** −0.002 (0.0009)** 0.0030 (0.001)*** 0.002 (0.0009)**
Environmental factors
 Soil quality −0.506 (0.156)*** −0.017 (0.131) −0.413 (0.492) −0.742 (0.218)*** 0.378 (0.500) 0.335 (0.471)
 Rainfall −1.11 (0.068)*** −0.850 (0.056)*** −0.513 (0.219)** −1.682 (0.102)   
 North zone 1.325 (0.303)*** 0.513 (0.109) 2.031 (5.46) 1.763 (5.460) 0.329 (0.311) −0.436 (0.299)
 Constant 5.619 (0.700)***   −2.540 (32.35) 8.820 (1.046)*** −9.134 (2.12)** −2.970 (7.413)
 Cut 1   −4.201 (0.563)***     
 Cut 2   −1.744 (0.528)     
Observations 3461 3461 3461 1006 1006
  1. Bootstrapped standard errors in parentheses, 1000 replications
  2. *** p < 0.01, ** p < 0.05, * p < 0.1