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Table 10 Effect size analysis of the variation in the percentage of urban population.

From: Poverty, vulnerability, and the middle class in Latin America

Country 2003 2013 Pooled SD d
Obs. Mean SD Var. Obs. Mean SD Var.
BRA 168000000 0.84 0.37 0.13 194000000 0.85 0.36 0.13 0.36 −0.016
COL 40700000 0.74 0.44 0.19 45800000 0.77 0.42 0.18 0.43 −0.054
CRI 3512837 0.58 0.49 0.24 4696885 0.62 0.49 0.24 0.49 −0.087
DOM 8617583 0.71 0.45 0.21 10200000 0.67 0.47 0.22 0.46 0.074
ECU 12800000 0.66 0.47 0.22 15800000 0.68 0.47 0.22 0.47 −0.034
HND 6800938 0.46 0.50 0.25 8535692 0.47 0.50 0.25 0.50 −0.023
PAN 3030994 0.63 0.48 0.23 3728782 0.66 0.47 0.22 0.48 −0.078
PER 27500000 0.70 0.46 0.21 31600000 0.75 0.43 0.19 0.45 −0.128
PRY 5670238 0.56 0.50 0.25 6709530 0.60 0.49 0.24 0.49 −0.074
SLV 6237766 0.60 0.49 0.24 6164886 0.63 0.48 0.23 0.49 −0.056
  1. Obs. number of observations, SD standard deviation, Var. variance, d Cohen’s d effect size indicator