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Table 3 Results from the unit root tests

From: Defence expenditure and economic growth in Latin American countries: evidence from linear and nonlinear causality tests

  ADF test Perron test KPSS test
  Level 1st diff. Level 1st diff. Level 1st diff.
Argentina
 lnGDP −3.44** −6.29*** −49.94*** −61.99*** 0.09* 0.03*
 lnMGDP −1.99 −4.04*** −9.21 −56.21*** 1.61*** 0.09*
 lnINV −2.83 −4.59*** −14.57 −41.87*** 1.17*** 0.04*
Bolivia
 lnGDP −2.67 −5.22*** −39.87*** −54.57*** 0.27* 0.05*
 lnMGDP −3.73** −4.26*** −12.6 −57.69*** 0.36* 0.14*
 lnINV −2.90 −4.16*** −22.48** −51.28*** 0.19* 0.04*
Brazil
 lnGDP −3.40* −5.53*** −47.26*** −61.69*** 0.88*** 0.04*
 lnMGDP −2.20 −4.09*** −12.88 −52.19*** 0.67*** 0.04*
 lnINV −2.51 −4.44*** −19.53** −50.67*** 0.33* 0.03*
Chile
 lnGDP −2.42 −5.85*** −57.49*** −73.27*** 0.25* 0.03*
 lnMGDP −0.77 −3.59** −3.36 −58.90*** 1.52*** 0.32*
 lnINV −2.91 −4.44*** −28.94*** −58.07*** 1.14*** 0.02*
Colombia
 lnGDP −3.53** −5.56*** −43.34*** −69.29*** 0.31* 0.02*
 lnMGDP −2.13 −3.68** −9.49 −45.49*** 0.96*** 0.05*
 lnINV −3.50** −4.66*** −20.15*** −52.56*** 0.43* 0.07*
Dominican Republic
 lnGDP −4.32*** −5.55*** −43.48*** −58.19*** 0.18* 0.02*
 lnMGDP −1.55 −3.22* −15.60 −48.56*** 2.27*** 0.04*
 lnINV −2.72 −4.47*** −18.24* −57.87*** 0.80*** 0.05*
Ecuador
 lnGDP −2.94 −6.18*** −51.06*** −69.33*** 0.12* 0.02*
 lnMGDP −2.42 −4.54*** −22.25** −62.01*** 0.40* 0.07*
 lnINV −4.01** −4.44*** −16.47 −60.26*** 0.94*** 0.07*
El Salvador
 lnGDP −3.44* −3.72** −26.04*** −61.39*** 0.43* 0.03*
 lnMGDP −1.52 −3.15* −3.43 −42.69*** 0.53** 0.25*
 lnINV −3.00 −3.28* −13.28 −45.24*** 0.10* 0.05*
Guatemala
 lnGDP −2.45 −3.80** −13.72 −55.08*** 0.41* 0.14*
 lnMGDP −3.94** −3.97** −11.06 −50.77*** 0.36* 0.06*
 lnINV −2.46 −4.01** −16.80* −55.61*** 0.25* 0.03*
Mexico
 lnGDP −4.18*** −6.02*** −35.30*** −55.06*** 0.78*** 0.01*
 lnMGDP −3.59** −3.74** −20.25** −69.49*** 0.25* 0.10*
 lnINV −2.89 −4.14*** −15.64 −53.71*** 0.44* 0.05*
Paraguay
 lnGDP −1.90 −4.10** −44.72*** −66.01*** 0.51** 0.02*
 lnMGDP −2.40 −3.76** −9.36 −81.82*** 1.88*** 0.12*
Peru
 lnGDP −3.81** −5.75*** −42.69*** −60.86*** 0.07* 0.02*
 lnMGDP −2.01 −3.61** −12.68 −55.21*** 1.98*** 0.09*
 lnINV −2.39 −5.42*** −11.35 −50.83*** 0.81*** 0.15*
Venezuela
 lnGDP −2.86 −4.18*** −62.20*** −77.58*** 0.15* 0.02*
 lnMGDP −3.88** −5.63*** −38.15*** −54.49*** 1.98*** 0.01*
 lnINV −2.39 −4.79*** −19.42* −47.04*** 0.32* 0.03*
  1. ***, **, and * Significant at the 1, 5, and 10 levels, respectively