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Table 6 BDS results

From: Defence expenditure and economic growth in Latin American countries: evidence from linear and nonlinear causality tests

  Length in SD (σ 2) Emdedding dimension (m) W statistic of variables
lnGDP lnMGDP lnINV
Argentina 0.5 2 26.85*** 49.77*** 10.76***
  0.5 3 40.16*** 65.44*** 9.93***
  0.5 4 64.09*** 61.97*** 8.96***
  0.5 5 69.38*** 32.30*** 8.28***
Bolivia 0.5 2 3.51*** 6.67*** 2.80***
  0.5 3 4.61*** 7.32*** 2.77***
  0.5 4 6.41*** 8.38*** 2.38***
  0.5 5 7.73*** 8.63*** 2.40***
Brazil 0.5 2 5.59*** 33.99*** 21.48***
  0.5 3 7.03*** 22.98*** 23.03***
  0.5 4 4.09*** 14.11*** 30.89***
  0.5 5 2.72*** 16.47*** 21.02***
Chile 0.5 2 2.61*** 28.13*** 9.03***
  0.5 3 0.34 45.92*** 8.97***
  0.5 4 4.89*** 2.66*** 5.25***
  0.5 5 3.26*** 1.74** 3.51***
Colombia 0.5 2 17.28*** 24.51*** 8.64***
  0.5 3 21.33*** 10.42*** 1.96**
  0.5 4 20.53*** 6.34*** 5.40***
  0.5 5 13.95*** 4.41*** 3.61***
Dominican Republic 0.5 2 9.41*** 16.30*** 38.12***
  0.5 3 77.17*** 15.80*** 31.57***
  0.5 4 46.01*** 1.19 7.26***
  0.5 5 31.35*** 0.74 4.88***
Ecuador 0.5 2 5.29*** 2.21*** 10.36***
  0.5 3 6.16*** 4.53*** 6.51***
  0.5 4 12.26*** 2.60*** 15.14***
  0.5 5 2.93*** 1.70* 10.26***
El Salvador 0.5 2 17.01*** 21.37*** 16.77***
  0.5 3 11.88*** 58.81*** 56.65***
  0.5 4 59.44*** 58.27*** 62.91***
  0.5 5 10.93*** 22.77*** 59.56***
Guatemala 0.5 2 36.04*** 25.84*** 14.63***
  0.5 3 37.88*** 37.45*** 19.21***
  0.5 4 68.29*** 60.27*** 26.28***
  0.5 5 85.52*** 72.97*** 38.56***
Mexico 0.5 2 1.82** 19.44*** 13.25***
  0.5 3 1.42* 17.56*** 4.52***
  0.5 4 5.20*** 17.75*** 10.42***
  0.5 5 3.47*** 16.61*** 3.74***
Paraguay 0.5 2 10.24*** 59.00***  
  0.5 3 6.61*** 22.74***  
  0.5 4 40.09*** 13.70***  
  0.5 5 3.08*** 9.44***  
Peru 0.5 2 5.11*** 32.95*** 32.70***
  0.5 3 16.79*** 10.05*** 44.60***
  0.5 4 22.65*** 6.12*** 26.54***
  0.5 5 15.55*** 4.26*** 18.05***
Venezuela 0.5 2 33.59*** 13.22*** 20.55***
  0.5 3 92.57*** 8.82*** 14.91***
  0.5 4 66.42*** 5.16*** 13.80***
  0.5 5 45.29*** 3.45*** 9.35***
  1. k represents five dimensions; SD equals 0.5
  2. ***, **, and * Significant at the 1, 5, and 10% levels, respectively