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Table 7 Summary of the nonlinear findings on the nexus between military expenditures and growth

From: Defence expenditure and economic growth in Latin American countries: evidence from linear and nonlinear causality tests

  MGDP ↔ GDP GDP → MGDP MGDP → GDP
Raw Data Resid. VAR Raw Data Resid. VAR Raw Data Resid. VAR
Argentina       +
Bolivia      +  
Brazil       +
Chile      +  
Colombia       
Dominican Republic      +  
Ecuador       
El Salvador +   +   +  
Guatemala       
Mexico       
Paraguay    +    
Peru       
Venezuela