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Table 1 Tariffs and Informality.

From: Trade liberalization and informality in Argentina: exploring the adjustment mechanisms

Years Obs Tariffs Informality
Avg. Std. dev. National Manufactures Non-traded
Total Small industries Large industries
1980 1041 40.95 10.17 20.28 15.62 32.89 10.75 22.94
1985 1048 31.55 6.37 23.19 17.80 33.76 12.61 25.54
1986 1146 29.98 6.98 24.78 19.55 34.72 14.95 27.39
1987 2346 29.39 7.55 26.93 21.12 41.80 14.61 29.71
1988 2431 29.42 7.54 28.94 23.02 44.51 16.44 31.70
1989 2459 31.65 8.03 29.30 24.51 43.92 18.37 31.32
1990 1467 20.56 4.64 27.88 24.99 49.63 18.09 28.96
1991 1583 15.33 5.51 33.05 29.63 55.09 21.49 34.35
1992 1629 17.43 4.95 32.99 25.63 46.92 18.57 36.04
1993 1634 21.34 6.27 33.74 26.81 48.36 19.99 36.51
1994 1477 20.29 5.73 32.18 26.18 47.44 20.14 34.29
1995 1345 18.52 3.91 34.42 26.86 47.04 21.71 36.65
1996 1281 19.21 3.73 36.51 31.32 50.73 24.77 38.07
1997 1379 19.23 3.98 38.26 30.94 55.85 23.35 40.43
1998 1359 18.8 4.00 37.84 34.10 57.59 26.91 38.88
1999 1230 18.6 3.96 38.65 34.49 56.33 27.85 39.68
2000 1184 18.73 3.46 39.34 33.03 57.84 26.50 40.75
2001 1085 25.51 5.28 39.07 34.01 54.68 29.20 40.34
  1. Number of observations correspond to wage employees in the manufacturing sector. Average tariff weighted by the employment level in each industry. The informality rate does not include the public sector, agricultural and mining sectors. To split industries into small and large, we use information from the EPH about the size of the firm where each worker is employed. This information is categorical in the survey, the categories being 1 = 1 employee, 2 = 2 to 5, 3 = 5 to 15; 4 = 16 to 25; 5 = 26 to 50; 6 = 51 to 100; 7 = 101 to 500; 8 = 501 or more. We classify a firm as small when the size is 15 workers or less. We then define an industry as small when the share of workers employed in small firms is 0.5 or larger