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Table 7 FMOLS and DOLS long-run estimates (across income groups)

From: The dynamic linkage between renewable energy, tourism, CO2 emissions, economic growth, foreign direct investment, and trade

Variable FMOLS DOLS
Coefficient Prob. Coefficient Prob.
Lower-Middle-Income economies
 y 0.784 0.00*** 0.706 0.00***
 re − 0.177 0.01*** − 0.159 0.01***
 trs − 0.416 0.00*** − 0.393 0.00***
 tr 0.379 0.00*** 0.351 0.00***
 fdi − 0.326 0.00*** − 0.305 0.01***
Upper-Middle-Income economies
 y 0.995 0.00*** 0.953 0.00***
 re − 0.136 0.01*** − 0.121 0.01***
 trs − 0.378 0.00*** − 0.352 0.00***
 tr 0.346 0.00*** 0.329 0.00***
 fdi − 0.294 0.01*** − 0.279 0.02**
High-Income economies
 y 1.437 0.00*** 1.324 0.00***
 re − 0.107 0.01*** − 0.085 0.02**
 trs − 0.326 0.01*** − 0.309 0.01***
 tr 0.303 0.01*** 0.286 0.02**
 fdi − 0.238 0.02** − 0.213 0.02**
  1. “***” and “**” indicate statistical significance at the levels 1% and 5%, respectively