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Table 8 Short- and long-run causality tests

From: The dynamic linkage between renewable energy, tourism, CO2 emissions, economic growth, foreign direct investment, and trade

Dependent variable Short run Long run
Δco2 Δy Δre Δtrs Δtr Δfdi ECT
Δco2 2.197 [0.18] 6.536*** [0.01] 0.0078 [0.86] 0.385 [0.63] 0.0026 [0.94] − 0.038** [0.03]
Δy 5.783** [0.04] 1.516 [0.19] 0.176 [0.57] 0.139 [0.62] 0.674*** [0.00] 0.086 [0.24]
Δre 0.086 [0.76] 3.454** [0.05] 0.178 [0.61] 0.094 [0.69] 0.017 [0.96] − 0.079** [0.03]
Δtrs 1.208 [0.22] 8.226*** [0.00] 2.106 [0.18] 2.549 [0.16] 0.075 [0.73] − 0.215*** [0.00]
Δtr 1.925 [0.18] 5.327** [0.04] 4.547** [0.05] 4.773** [0.05] 1.229*** [0.00] − 0.0852*** [0.00]
Δfdi 8.763*** [0.00] 10.438*** [0.00] 0.785 [0.19] 9.439*** [0.00] 6.409*** [0.00] − 0.128*** [0.00]
  1. “***”, “**” indicate statistical significance at the 1% and 5% levels, respectively. P values are listed in brackets