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Table 2 Pre-treatment characteristics

From: Skills versus Luck: Bolivia and its recent Bonanza

Access to electricity (1990–2005)65.4966.7880.67
Energy use (1990–2005)494.83625.532280.55
Investment rate (1990–2005)16.0317.6722.57
Health expenditures (1990–2005)5.325.316.23
Human capital (1990–2005)2.402.352.47
Improved water (1990–2005)76.0575.7086.59
Inflation (2005)5.395.718.40
Net barter terms of trade (1990–2005)98.2696.1572.20
Openness (1990–2005)50.2750.3978.58
Prevalence of anemia (1990–2005)54.2754.0734.68
Share of gov. expenditures (1990–2005)14.2812.6315.75
Total factor productivity (1990–2005)0.370.420.65
  1. All variables are averaged for the period in parenthesis. Real is the average for Bolivia (\(X_{1}\)). Synthetic is the value for synthetic Bolivia (\({\widehat{X}}_{1}\)). Average is the simple average for all the countries considered to build the synthetic control. Countries denote the number of countries considered. RMSPE denotes the root mean squared percentage error when compared to Bolivia. Further data description is in Appendix 1