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Table 3 Zivot and Andrews (1992) unit root test with structural break

From: Oil price, energy consumption and carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions: insight into sustainability challenges in Venezuela

  At level At first difference Result
t-Statistic Break date t-Statistic Break date
lnEngy − 3.466 [1] 1987 − 13.332 [0]*** 1982 I(1)
lnOil − 3.895 [0] 1986 − 7.582 [0]*** 1981 I(1)
lnCO2 − 4.630 [0] 2004 − 7.480 [1]*** 2004 I(1)
lnRgdpc − 3.999 [1] 2004 − 5.915 [1]*** 2004 I(1)
lnGCE − 3.681 [0] 2004 − 6.898 [1]*** 1997 I(1)
lnTrd − 4.152 [0] 1988 − 8.200 [0]*** 1984 I(1)
  1. Lag length in []. *** Indicates significance at 1%. indicates series first difference