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Table 4 Lee and Strazicich (2003) LM unit root test with two structural breaks

From: Oil price, energy consumption and carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions: insight into sustainability challenges in Venezuela

  At level At first difference Result
t-Statistic Break dates t-Statistic Break dates
lnEngy − 5.646 [4] 1978, 2003 − 8.082 [3]*** 1981, 1991 I(1)
lnOil − 5.145 [1] 1982, 1997 − 7.775 [3]*** 1979, 1987 I(1)
lnCO2 − 5.325 [1] 1977, 2004 − 7.301 [1]*** 1982, 2007 I(1)
lnRgdpc − 4.976 [1] 1980, 2005 − 6.243 [1]** 1999, 2003 I(1)
lnGCE − 5.102 [1] 1989, 1995 − 8.093 [2]*** 1994, 1998 I(1)
lnTrd − 5.241 [3] 1981, 1990 − 7.330 [1]*** 1976, 1988 I(1)
  1. Lag length in []. ** And *** indicates significance at 5% level and 1% level, respectively