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Table 1 Argentina’s institutional breakdowns.

From: The rise and fall of Argentina

BreakdownCharacteristics of breakdownPeriodGDP per capita
Level ($)Growth rate (%)Standard deviation
Military coupElectoral fraud, legislative malapportionment1930–19433994− 0.34.5
Rise of PerónProsecution, repression, and torture of political opponents; widespread government favoritism; end of judicial independence; forced resignation of Supreme Court justices; nullification of constitution1946–195549921.84.8
Revolución LibertadoraBan of political parties, civilian and military power seizure, government favoritism, forced resignation of Supreme Court justices1955–195854203.31.7
Fragile radical (UCR) administrationsWidespread government favoritism, use of executive power to declare state of economic emergency, legislative malapportionment, ban of political parties, power seizure by military1958–196657901.65.8
Revolución ArgentinaCoup, end of university autonomy, armed guerrilla violence, forced resignation of Supreme Court justices1966–197370952.72.2
Second Perón eraExpropriation of foreign bond holdings, forced resignation of Supreme Court justices, nationalization of banks, prohibition of foreign media services, abrogation of university autonomy1973–197680951.03.8
Military dictatorshipBrutal violence against political opponents, assassinations in various parts of civil society, massive violation of human rights, political arrests without trial, torture and intimidation, politicization of armed forces, forced resignation of Supreme Court justices1976–19837843− 1.14.7