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Table 10 Estimates of the models of adoption with regional variables

From: Production risk and adoption of irrigation technology: evidence from small-scale farmers in Chile

Variables Probit Irrigation = 1 Ordered probit+ Level: 1, 2, 3 Multinomial probit Probit on selected sample Modern irrigation = 1 Probit with sample selection Modern irrigation = 1
Modern Traditional
Moments of production distribution
 Mean 0.0546 (0.0291)* 0.0294 (0.0211) 0.0657 (0.0806) 0.0658 (0.0427) 0.132 (0.0922) 0.140 (0.0874)
 St. Dev. 0.529 (0.140)*** 0.222 (0.102)** −0.259 (0.311) 0.906 (0.213)*** −0.722 (0.349)** −0.701 (0.337)**
 Skewness 0.0332 (0.0172)* 0.00890 (0.0127) −0.00985 (0.0336) 0.0695 (0.0265)*** −0.0593 (0.0417) −0.0573 (0.0400)
Household head characteristics
 Gender 0.108 (0.0723) 0.122** 0.0836 0.186* −0.295 −0.281
(0.0576) (0.179) (0.106) (0.215) (0.207)
 Age −0.178 (0.117) −0.122 (0.0927) 0.145 (0.299) −0.376 (0.171)** 0.346 (0.387) 0.277 (0.377)
 Education 0.0701 (0.0179)*** 0.0646 (0.0137)*** 0.145 (0.0387)*** 0.0692 (0.0267)*** 0.123 (0.0436)*** 0.122 (0.0426)***
 Reside in plot 0.130 (0.0757)* 0.0906 (0.0570) 0.440 (0.201)** 0.197 (0.110)* 0.526 (0.223)** 0.531 (0.217)**
 Dependence 0.0418 (0.0329) 0.0290 (0.0250) 0.0161 (0.0689) 0.0210 (0.0485) 0.0616 (0.0846) 0.0566 (0.0819)
 Capital 0.00546 (0.00470) 0.00615 (0.00359)* 0.0276 (0.0112)** 0.00492 (0.00703) 0.0277 (0.0137)** 0.0230 (0.0132)*
 Land 0.102 (0.0349)*** 0.0810 (0.0260)*** 0.386 (0.0712)*** 0.163 (0.0516)*** 0.204 (0.0849)** 0.198 (0.0818)**
Institutional aspects
 Secure tenure 0.115 (0.101) 0.148 (0.0789)* 0.674 (0.338)** 0.105 (0.148) 0.642 (0.424) 0.556 (0.401)
 Extension 0.256 (0.0969)*** 0.272 (0.0773)*** 0.604 (0.179)*** 0.124 (0.151) 0.455 (0.224)** 0.438 (0.217)**
 Credit 0.225 (0.0920)** 0.246 (0.0688)*** 0.561 (0.177)*** −0.0893 (0.140) 0.461 (0.206)** 0.488 (0.200)**
 Participation 0.183 (0.0880)** 0.0879 (0.0603) 0.0286 (0.173) 0.335 (0.125)*** 0.0678 (0.191) 0.0917 (0.187)
 N° irrigat (T) 0.00182 (9.35e−05)*** 0.00104 (6.13e−05)*** 0.00173 (0.000249)*** 0.00290 (0.000128)*** −0.00114 (0.000282)*** −0.000943 (0.000270)***
 N° irrigat (M) −0.000311 (0.000521) −0.000954 (0.000323)*** 0.00275 (0.000885)*** −0.00122 (0.000728)* 0.00297 (0.000824)*** 0.00268 (0.000806)***
Environmental factors
 Soil quality −0.268 (0.155)* 0.165 (0.117) −1.317 (0.391)*** −0.766 (0.212)*** 0.234 (0.450) 0.168 (0.443)
 Rainfall −0.562 (0.0935)*** −0.565 (0.0678)*** −0.665 (0.190)*** −1.750 (0.106)*** 0.883 (0.205)*** 0.712 (0.208)***
Regional dummies
 Region 4 1.445 (0.441)*** 0.472 (0.194)** 0.898 (0.749) 0.134 (0.578) 1.163 (0.454)** 1.039 (0.452)**
 Region 5 2.222 (0.405)*** 0.986 (0.158)*** 2.304 (0.773)*** 2.445 (0.618)*** 0.209 (0.394) 0.223 (0.396)
 Region 7 0.756 (0.108)*** 0.451 (0.0846)*** −0.451 (0.534) 0.846 (0.150)***   
 Region 9 −0.489 (0.107)*** −0.594 (0.0885)*** 0.510 (0.207)** −0.320 (0.150)** 0.506 (0.329) 0.566 (0.313)*
 Region 10 −0.999 (0.158)*** −1.282 (0.125)***     
 Region 13 2.251 (0.400)*** 0.446 (0.131)***     6.259 (3,430)
 Region 14 −0.807 (0.237)*** −1.046 (0.189)***     
 Constant 2.182 (0.850)**   9.926 (1.078)*** −0.650 (1.950) −9.466 (2.331)*** −8.212 (2.334)***
 Cut 1   −2.496 (0.624)***     
 Cut 2   −0.118 (0.625)     
Observations 7274 7274 7274 1211 1211
  1. Bootstrapped standard errors in parentheses, 1000 replications
  2. *** p < 0.01, ** p < 0.05, * p < 0.1