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Table 8 Estimates of the models of technology adoption with interactions

From: Production risk and adoption of irrigation technology: evidence from small-scale farmers in Chile

Variables Probit Irrigation = 1 Ordered probit+ Level: 1, 2, 3 Multinomial probit Probit on selected sample Modern irrigation = 1 Probit with sample selection Modern irrigation = 1
Modern Traditional
Moments of production distribution
 Mean 0.0392 (0.0284) 0.0196 (0.0206) 0.0770 (0.0826) 0.0519 (0.0425) 0.155 (0.0919)* 0.172 (0.0841)**
 St. Dev. 0.552 (0.130)*** 0.170 (0.0968)* −0.0352 (0.286) 1.000 (0.205)*** −0.630 (0.338)* −0.906 (0.287)***
 Skewness 0.0436 (0.0160)*** 0.00728 (0.0119) 0.00930 (0.0317) 0.0861 (0.0255)*** −0.0458 (0.0404) −0.0820 (0.0340)**
Household characteristics
 Gender 0.137 (0.0711)* 0.127 (0.0570)** 0.0614 (0.179) 0.220 (0.106)** −0.347 (0.217) −0.286 (0.199)
 Age −0.228 (0.299) −0.0813 (0.237) 0.812 (1.216) −0.496 (0.441) 2.608 (2.427) 1.985 (1.884)
 Education 0.118 (0.0534)** 0.106 (0.0412)** 0.122 (0.186) 0.162 (0.0784)** −0.0997 (0.286) −0.117 (0.241)
 Reside in farm 0.129 (0.0738)* 0.0612 (0.0564) 0.542 (0.205)*** 0.169 (0.109) 0.558 (0.222)** 0.672 (0.207)***
 Dependence 0.0207 (0.0312) −0.00394 (0.0241) −0.000804 (0.0692) 0.0160 (0.0473) 0.0189 (0.0844) −0.0155 (0.0766)
 Capital 0.00966 (0.00458)** 0.00870 (0.00354)** 0.0269 (0.0111)** 0.00894 (0.00693) 0.0253 (0.0136)* 0.0259 (0.0123)**
 Land 0.0757 (0.0950) 0.0241 (0.0714) 0.599 (0.294)** 0.101 (0.139) 0.466 (0.367) 0.520 (0.356)
Institutional aspects
 Secure tenure 0.264 (1.266) 0.788 (1.012) 3.549 (4.951) −0.228 (1.873) 9.854 (10.35) 8.578 (8.106)
 Extension −0.480 (1.409) −0.378 (1.130) 3.051 (2.662) −2.089 (2.252) 1.552 (3.881) 0.129 (3.490)
 Credit 0.262 (1.258) −0.147 (0.951) −0.901 (2.535) 2.460 (1.954) −2.204 (3.304) −1.669 (3.016)
 Participation 0.216 (0.0821)*** 0.0992 (0.0581)* 0.00871 (0.174) 0.337 (0.123)*** −0.0558 (0.192) −0.131 (0.178)
 Edad × Secure tenure 0.0351 (0.323) −0.102 (0.256) −0.830 (1.228) 0.190 (0.478) −2.524 (2.475) −2.248 (1.939)
 Edad × Extension 0.138 (0.348) 0.135 (0.279) −0.611 (0.653) 0.477 (0.554) −0.256 (0.946) 0.0569 (0.852)
 Edad × Credit 0.0196 (0.311) 0.117 (0.235) 0.453 (0.626) −0.561 (0.483) 0.743 (0.807) 0.621 (0.741)
 Education × Secure tenure −0.0403 (0.0566) −0.0378 (0.0432) 0.102 (0.189) −0.0862 (0.0834) 0.261 (0.289) 0.279 (0.243)
 Education × Extension 0.0160 (0.0588) 0.0131 (0.0449) −0.0624 (0.102) 0.0473 (0.0953) −0.00933 (0.132) 0.0487 (0.120)
 Education × Credit −0.0798 (0.0492) −0.0493 (0.0354) −0.157 (0.0849)* −0.149 (0.0812)* −0.0997 (0.106) −0.115 (0.0970)
 Land × Secure tenure 0.109 (0.0987) 0.109 (0.0737) 0.0212 (0.293) 0.0863 (0.146) −0.209 (0.378) −0.353 (0.364)
 Land × Extension −0.191 (0.0809)** −0.139 (0.0614)** −0.242 (0.140)* −0.285 (0.130)** 0.179 (0.163) 0.158 (0.148)
 Land × Credit 0.00431 (0.0696) −0.0401 (0.0510) −0.230 (0.129)* 0.118 (0.111) −0.181 (0.144) −0.186 (0.133)
 N° irrigat (T) 0.00197 (8.40e−05)*** 0.00127 (5.56e−05)*** 0.00158 (0.000240)*** 0.00302 (0.000120)*** −0.00121 (0.000240)*** −0.00114 (0.000226)***
 N° irrigat (M) −0.000829 (0.000501)* −0.00144 (0.000304)*** 0.00317 (0.000889)*** −0.00160 (0.000699)** 0.00310 (0.000825)*** 0.00232 (0.000792)***
Environmental factors
 Soil quality −0.643 (0.139)*** −0.133 (0.110) −0.872 (0.355)** −1.004 (0.202)*** 0.542 (0.404) 0.530 (0.373)
 Rainfall −1.184 (0.0680)*** −0.886 (0.0511)*** −0.716 (0.181)*** −1.941 (0.0968)*** 0.831 (0.173)***  
 North zone 1.125 (0.302)*** 0.363 (0.123)*** 1.777 (0.577)*** 1.419 (0.426)*** 0.474 (0.353) −0.373 (0.277)
 South zone −0.559 (0.129)*** −0.894 (0.102)***     
 Constant 6.442 (1.289)***   −2.908 (5.131) 11.34 (1.894)*** −17.38 (10.31)* −9.377 (7.925)
 Cut 1   −4.349 (1.019)***     
 Cut 2   −1.954 (1.019)*     
Observations 7274 7274 7274 1223 1223
  1. Bootstrapped standard errors in parentheses, 1000 replications
  2. *** p < 0.01, ** p < 0.05, * p < 0.1