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Table 5 Results of Johansen’s cointegration tests

From: Defence expenditure and economic growth in Latin American countries: evidence from linear and nonlinear causality tests

  Trace statistic (λ trace) Maximum eigenvalue statistics (λ max)
  r = 0 r ≤ 1 r ≤ 2 r = 0 r ≤ 1 r ≤ 2
Argentina 47.93*** 18.42** 5.17* 32.51*** 15.25** 4.95*
Bolivia 48.61*** 27.30*** 11.11** 21.31** 16.19** 8.31*
Brazil 36.08** 18.19** 5.30* 22.90** 14.89** 4.10*
Chile 33.55** 17.71** 6.60* 21.83** 14.91** 5.02*
Colombia 36.06** 22.28** 4.83* 23.78** 18.45** 3.15*
Dominican Republic 49.15*** 19.46** 4.13* 29.69*** 15.33** 4.00*
Ecuador 41.79*** 17.84** 5.41* 23.95** 14.43** 3.95*
El Salvador 34.64** 19.69** 5.66* 24.94** 17.09** 4.91*
Guatemala 72.53*** 18.44** 5.98* 56.09*** 15.46** 4.51*
Mexico 38.76*** 20.78** 6.77** 22.98** 15.01** 5.20*
Paraguay 19.02*** 9.02** 3.40* 18.01** 9.02** 2.10
Peru 34.19** 18.81** 3.78* 23.38** 15.02** 2.01
Venezuela 31.86** 18.63** 5.04* 22.23** 14.59** 4.15*
  1. ***, **, and * Significant at the 1, 5, and 10 levels, respectively, and r is cointegration rank