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Table 8 Summary of the nonlinear findings on the nexus between military expenditures and gross capital formation

From: Defence expenditure and economic growth in Latin American countries: evidence from linear and nonlinear causality tests

  MGDP ↔ INV INV → MGDP MGDP → INV
Raw Data Resid. VAR Raw Data Resid. VAR Raw Data Resid. VAR
Argentina    +    
Bolivia       
Brazil   +   +   +
Chile      +  
Colombia      +  
Dominican Republic       
Ecuador       
El Salvador       
Guatemala       
Mexico       
Paraguay       
Peru   +   +   +
Venezuela      +