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Table 1 Descriptive statistics of the analysis variables

From: The dynamic linkage between renewable energy, tourism, CO2 emissions, economic growth, foreign direct investment, and trade

Variables Y CO2 TRS TR RE FDI
Mean 72.7 40,380.58 1,173,091 58.03 25.33 4.30
Maximum 1100 419,754.2 5,358,000 163.65 432.93 26.59
Minimum 0.32 73.34 43,000 12.45 0.00 − 16.59
Std. dev. 178 79,263.06 1,237,864 30.88 69.42 4.61
Skewness 4.02 2.76 1.57 1.22 4.13 0.84
Kurtosis 18.92 10.27 5 4.54 19.77 5.05
Jarque–Bera 4666.12 1223.80 204.54 121.65 5124.74 396.70
P values 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00
  1. Y gross domestic product (in constant 2005 billion US dollars), CO2 carbon dioxide emissions (in kilo tons), TRS number of tourist arrivals, TR trade openness ratio (in %), RE renewable energy consumption (in billions of kilowatt-hours), FDI FDI inflows (as percentage of GDP)